Skip to main content

EC 329: Business Organization and Management: Home

This guide will focus on Evidence-Based Management research and practices.


Evidence-Based Management uses appropriate research findings to inform management decisions.

"Evidence-based management is about making decisions through the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of four sources of information:

  • practitioner expertise and judgment
  • evidence from the local context
  • a critical evaluation of the best available research evidence
  • the perspectives of those people who might be affected by the decision"

Source:  Briner, R. B., Denyer, D., & Rousseau, D. M. (2009). Evidence-Based Management: Concept Cleanup Time?  Academy of Management Perspectives, 23, 19-32.

Evidence Hierarchy


Meta-analyses of research studies


Systematic reviews of research articles


Longitudinal field studies


Randomized controlled interventions


Multiple quasi-experimental/cross-sectional studies


Controlled case comparisons


Case studies/descriptive research


Expert opinion


Non-expert opinion


Standard/popular practices

Rousseau, D., Course syllabus for Evidence-Based Management - 45-961,Tepper School of Business, Fall 2010


Research Articles Hierarchy

Articles based on Type 1 studies represent the most reliable form of evidence. 

  • Type 1 studies include randomized clinical trials.
  • Type 2 studies include clinical trials, but some aspects of the type 1 study may be missing (for example, the assignment may not be randomized).
  • Type 3 studies are open treatment studies aimed at getting pilot data. These are subject to bias. Type 3 studies can include case controlled studies.
  • Type 4 studies are reviews with secondary data analysis. This can include a meta-analysis.
  • Type 5 studies are reviews without secondary data analysis.  This can include literature reviews.
  • Type 6 studies include case studies, essays, and opinion papers.

Nathan, P.E. & Gorman, J.M. (2007). A guide to treatments that work. Oxford: Oxford University Press.